Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory: Based on his study of many people from many different walks of life in everyday circumstances and professions, Gardner developed the theory of multiple intelligences. He performed interviews with - and brain research on - hundreds of people. According to Gardner:

  • All human beings possess all nine intelligences in varying amounts.
  • Each person has a different intellectual composition.
  • We can improve learning by addressing the multiple intelligences.
  • These intelligences are located in different areas of the brain and can either work independently or together.
  • These intelligences may define the human species.

Gardner’s research shows that each individual has nine intelligences:

  • Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence
    Well-developed verbal skills and sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words
  • Mathematical-Logical Intelligence
    Ability to think conceptually and abstractly, and capacity to discern logical or numerical patterns
  • Musical Intelligence
    Ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch and timber
  • Visual-Spatial Intelligence
    Capacity to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly
  • Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
    Ability to control one's body movements and to handle objects skillfully
  • Interpersonal Intelligence
    Capacity to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, motivations and desires of others
  • Intrapersonal Intelligence
    Capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings, values, beliefs and thinking processes
  • Naturalist Intelligence
    Ability to recognize and categorize plants, animals and other objects in nature
  • Existential Intelligence
    Sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the meaning of life, why do we die, and how did we get here